However, in addition to lack of general ship crew training Lynn also highlighted the very minimal training requirements for stockman aboard Australian live ex ships. Remembering that veterinarians do not accompany the vast majority of Australian live ex voyages, then animal health, disease diagnosis and treatment is all down to the stockman. A stockman is mandatory on every voyage. Vets arent. Great to know that a week long stockies course is considered adequate replacement for a vet! Wonder what we did at vet school for 5 years? No surprise that so many high mortality SE Asian voyages have "no definitive cause". No vets, no diagnoses. And with no definitive diagnoses, treatment (and thus animal welfare) likely to be suboptimal.